…It then occurred to Luca della Robia that clay can be manipulated with ease and little trouble, and that the only thing required was to discover a means whereby work produced in this material could be preserved a long time. By dint of many experiments he discovered a method of protecting it from the injury of time, for he found that he could render such works practically imperishable, by covering the clay with a glaze made of tin, litharge, antimony and other materials, baked in the fire in a specially constructed furnace. For this method, of which he was the inventor, he won loud praises, and all succeeding ages are under an obligation to him… The MET Bliss Madonna by Luca della Robbia is one such fine example of his skillful use of clay and a tin glaze! https://www.artist-biography.info/artist/luca_della_robbia/ Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, first published in 1550 and dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici
Luca della Robbia (1399/1400–1482) was an Italian sculptor and ceramist renowned for his contributions to the Renaissance artistic movement. Born in Florence, he hailed from a family of artists and began his career as a sculptor. However, Luca is best known for perfecting the technique of glazed terracotta sculpture, a medium he elevated to new heights. His innovative use of vibrant polychrome glazes brought a lifelike quality to his works, distinguishing him from his contemporaries. His artistry, marked by a harmonious blend of classical influences and innovative techniques, left an enduring legacy and influenced later generations of artists.
The artist was an innovator. Before him, sculptors primarily worked with marble or bronze, and clay was mostly used for preparatory models rather than finished works of art. Luca’s innovation was to take terracotta, a material that had been traditionally associated with architectural decoration, and elevate it to the status of a refined artistic medium. His breakthrough was the development of a tin glaze that, when applied to terracotta, created a smooth, lustrous surface. This glazing technique not only added a layer of protection to the sculptures but also allowed for the application of vibrant and enduring polychrome colors. This marked a departure from the monochromatic nature of traditional terracotta works.
Luca’s creations, ranging from religious reliefs to freestanding sculptures, were characterized by a newfound vibrancy and a lifelike quality. This innovation made his sculptures more accessible to a broader audience and contributed to the democratization of art during the Renaissance. He even began a practice of reproducing his clay sculptures in casts, which members of his family and large workshop continued into the sixteenth century. His influence extended beyond his family workshop, inspiring other artists to explore the potential of terracotta and glazing techniques, thus contributing to the dynamic and transformative period of artistic flourishing in Renaissance Florence. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/204722
The artwork of the day is the Bliss Madonna by Luca della Robbia in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
A classic masterpiece by Luca della Robbia, the Bliss Madonna captivates the viewer’s attention with its serene beauty and religious devotion. In front of a niche defined by gilded ribs against a lively turquoise backdrop, the Virgin Mary is depicted tenderly cradling the infant Jesus, who stands at the niche’s edge, leans towards her, and equally tenderly embraces her. The intimate connection is palpable as Christ reaches around her neck, and their heads gently touch, revealing blue-gray eyes that engage the viewer. The composition’s frame is adorned with an intricate floral design, and the upper corners proudly bear the Bartorelli and Baldi coats of arms, symbolizing a probable union between these prominent Florentine families.
Luca della Robbia’s terracotta sculptures of the Madonna with the Child, like the MET’s Bliss Madonna, represent a high point of Renaissance sculpture, showcasing the artist’s innovative approach to the medium. The application of polychrome glazes, like the turquoise in the discussed artifact, allowed him to achieve a luminous, almost ethereal quality in his artworks. The delicate expressions on the faces of the Madonna and Child, coupled with the intricacies of drapery and the overall harmonious composition, reflect della Robbia’s deep understanding of both classical ideals and the spiritual essence he sought to convey. These amazing, glazed terracotta sculptures became iconic representations of religious devotion during the Renaissance and contributed to the broader artistic movement’s exploration of new materials and techniques.
For a PowerPoint depicting 10 Masterpieces by Luca della Robbia, please… Check HERE!
The father, more than anyone, must labor with hands and feet, with every nerve, with zeal and wisdom, for he must attempt to make his children moral and upright. That they may serve the advantage of the family—moral character being no less precious in a young man than wealth—and be an ornament and credit to their family, their country, and themselves… It is generally thought better for a country, if I am not mistaken, to have virtuous and upright citizens rather than many rich and powerful ones. And surely children whose character is poor must be a terrible sorrow to any father who is not insensible and utterly foolish… writes Leon Battista Alberti and I think of Lo Scheggia’s Reclining Youth!
Giovanni di Ser Giovanni Guidi, known as Lo Scheggia, was an Italian Renaissance artist. He was born in 1406 in San Giovanni Valdarno, Italy, and was the brother of the famous artist Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai). Lo Scheggia is primarily known for his work as a painter, but he also engaged in the decoration of domestic furnishings, such as wedding chests, birth trays, spalliera panels, strongboxes, and headrests. http://www.travelingintuscany.com/art/loscheggia.htm
The artist received his nickname “Lo Scheggia,” which means “the splinter” in Italian, due to his slender build, but also probably because of his specialization as a painter of wooden artifacts. A decisive influence on Giovanni’s training, what probably set him on the path to his artistic career as a decorator of furnishings, was his grandfather Mone, who was a cassaio, that is a craftsman who specialized in the construction of chests. He was also influenced by his brother, Masaccio’s, innovative approach to perspective, anatomy, and realism, which were revolutionary during the early Renaissance. Lo Scheggia worked along with his brother, on Masaccio’s workshop, with whom he lived in Via de’ Servi along with their mother. http://www.travelingintuscany.com/art/loscheggia.htm
Although not as celebrated as his brother, and his career not as extensively documented as some of his contemporaries, Lo Scheggia made important contributions to the art scene of his time. He worked on various projects alongside other renowned artists of the Renaissance. His masterpiece, painted around 1449, is considered to be the Birth Tray for Lorenzo il Magnifico portraying the Triumph of Fame.
I find equally interesting his painting of a Reclining Youth created to decorate the Inner lid of a Wedding Chest or Cassone in Italian. A Renaissance Cassone was a large and ornate piece of furniture made on the occasion of an important wedding and contained the bride’s trousseau. As described by Gorgio Vasari, Italian Cassoni were created for… citizens of those times (16th century) who used to have in their apartments great wooden chests in the form of a sarcophagus, with the covers shaped in various fashions…and besides the stories that were wrought on the front and on the ends, they used to have the arms, or rather, insignia, of their houses painted on the corners, and sometimes elsewhere. And the stories that were wrought on the front were for the most part fables taken from Ovid and from other poets, or rather stories related by the Greek and Latin historians, and likewise chases, jousts, tales of love, and other similar subjects.https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O132970/cassone-unknown/
…Mothers, fathers, teachers, nurses, doctors, government leaders, civil society activists, religious and community elders, corporate moguls, media professionals, and even young people and children themselves all have a crucial role to play in making World Children’s Day meaningful within their societies, communities, and nations… In 1954, the United Nations designated the 20th of November as World Children’s Day, aiming to enhance children’s welfare, foster international unity, and raise awareness among children worldwide. …World Children’s Day provides each of us with an inspirational starting point to advocate for, promote, and celebrate children’s rights. This significant celebratory day is described in this manner by the United Nations… The Spedale degli Innocenti in Florence, an architectural masterpiece designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, holds historical significance as the first Renaissance orphanage, serving as a testament to Florence’s compassion and care for innocent children. In honor of this important UN Day, today’s BLOG POST will serve as my humble contribution. https://www.un.org/en/observances/world-childrens-day
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was an Italian Renaissance architect, engineer, and designer, known for his innovative contributions to architecture and engineering during the 15th century. He is considered one of the founding fathers of Renaissance architecture and played a crucial role in the development of perspective in painting and the use of linear perspective in architectural design.
Inspired by classical Roman architectural designs, Ospedale degli Innocenti, the Hospital of the Innocents (meaning innocent children), also known in the old Tuscan dialect as the Spedale degli Innocenti, is Brunelleschi’s first Renaissance architectural achievement. Constructed between 1419 and 1445, Ospedale was commissioned by the Arte della Seta (Silk Guild) or the Silk Merchants’ Guild, a powerful economic and cultural organization in Florence.
The purpose of the Ospedale degli Innocenti was to serve as an orphanage and foundling hospital, providing care and support for abandoned or orphaned children. The name “Innocenti” emphasizes the institution’s focus on providing care and support to the most vulnerable members of society—orphans and abandoned infants.
If the construction and establishment of the Ospedale degli Innocenti showcased a significant social and cultural development, representing the burgeoning Renaissance ideals of compassion, and humanism, Brunelleschi’s architectural design reflected the changing Renaissance aesthetic and laid the foundation for the Renaissance architectural style that followed. For example, by incorporating classical elements and proportions inspired by ancient Roman and Greek architecture, the building’s facade displayed a harmonious and balanced arrangement of columns, arches, and pilasters, showcasing the influence of classical design principles. Ospedale’s facade is characterized by its symmetrical layout, while its arcades and loggias add elegance and an open design. Thus, Brunelleschi’s building exhibits a sense of equilibrium and balance, a hallmark of Renaissance design influenced by classical ideals.
Let’s not forget how Vasari describes Brunelleschi’s sojourn to Rome and his meticulous investigation of the city’s ancient ruins. Vasari recalls how the artist did not apparently rest …until he had drawn every sort of building–round, square, and octagonal temples, basilicas, aqueducts, baths, arches, colosseum, amphitheaters, and every temple built of bricks, from which he copied the methods of binding and of clamping with ties, and also of encircling vaults with them; and he noted the ways of making buildings secure by binding the stones together by iron bars, and by dovetailing… He then distinguished the different Orders one from another–Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian; and so zealous was his study that his intellect became very well able to see Rome, in imagination, as she was when she was not in ruins.https://filippobrunelleschifacts.tumblr.com/post/109790232722/vasaris-lives-of-the-artists-life-of
Spedale degli Innocenti is the ‘canvas’ of yet another great master of Italian Renaissance art, that is Andrea della Robbia. In 1487, according to Dr. Rachel Boyd, Andrea della Robbia was hired to fill the loggia’s roundels (Brunelleschi’s design intentionally left the roundels on the loggia facade unadorned) with colorful works of art. Described as bambini di terra (“babies made of clay”) in an original payment record, these high-relief sculptures were made in glazed terracotta, a distinctive medium that was the signature of the Della Robbia family workshop.https://smarthistory.org/andrea-della-robbia-bambini-ospedale-degli-innocenti/
The Della Robbia roundels in the Ospedale degli Innocenti are celebrated for their artistic beauty, mastery of ceramic technique, and their contribution to the visual identity of one of Florence’s historic landmarks. The babies are rendered with a remarkable degree of realism and naturalism. The facial features, anatomy, and proportions of the infants are meticulously crafted, displaying a lifelike quality that adds to their charm and appeal. Their cherubic faces and gentle expressions convey a sense of innocence and serenity, evoking a feeling of tenderness and care.
I could easily add that the artistic qualities of the depicted babies in Andrea della Robbia’s glazed terracotta roundels include a blend of realism, expressive features, symbolism of childhood, and a mastery of the glazed terracotta technique, resulting in a timeless and captivating representation of infancy and innocence. What an achievement!
For a PowerPoint on Brunelleschi’s Oeuvre, please… Check HERE!
In a well-known passage in De pictura, Alberti describes the principal power of portraits,and even painting in general, as follows: Painting possesses a truly divine power in that it does not only make the absent present, as they say of friendship, but it also represents the dead to the living many centuries later […] Through painting, thefaces of the dead go on living for a very long time. Does Titian’s Portrait of Isabella d’Este possess a truly divine power in presenting the true likeness of the Marchioness of Mantua? https://scholarlypublications.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2889008/view page 125
Titian’s renowned painting of Isabella d’Este, commonly referred to as La Bella (The Beautiful), was created in 1534 when Isabella herself was approximately 60 years old. Notably, the Marchioness of Mantua did not directly sit for Titian’s brush; instead, she dispatched a portrait of herself executed by Francesco Francia (now lost) in 1511 to provide a reference for her likeness. Titian, the accomplished Venetian master, concluded his Portrait in 1536, earning Isabella’s delight with the outcome. In a letter to the Mantuan ambassador in Venice, she acknowledged… The portrait by Titian’s hand captures such a pleasing essence that we are prompted to question whether, during the age he depicts us, we ever possessed the beauty it encapsulates.
Titian’s Portrait of Isabella d’Este is currently housed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. It portrays Isabella as a young and exquisite woman, dressed in elegant attire, with a sophisticated hairstyle and adorned with jewels. The portrait may not be an accurate portrayal of Isabella turning sixty, but it effectively captures the regal poise and demeanor that defined the Marchioness of Mantua.
In the painting, Isabella is portrayed in a three-quarter profile, with her gaze slightly averted from the viewer. She is adorned in a sumptuous gown that combines shades of blue and black, intricately embellished with the fantasie dei vinci pattern, which serves as a testament to her position as a prominent noblewoman of her era. The hues of her attire are both dark and vivid, and the fashionable accessories that Isabella wears, pearl earrings and a fur shawl gracefully draped over her shoulder, have been meticulously rendered. These details not only reflect Isabella’s significance but also highlight Titian’s expertise in capturing textures and fabrics. https://scholarlypublications.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2889008/view pp.22-23
1 am particularly drawn to the elegant arrangement of Isabella’s hair. The Marchioness wears a captivating bulbous headdress featuring a sizable brooch adorned with eight pearls encircling a gem. Isabella was a famous fashionista. The bulbous headdress (known as zazara at the time) was designed by Isabella herself, and the Titian painting served her own trendsetting fashion put on display. What a magnificent way to emphasize her majestic presence!
Isabella’s expression is both serene and confident, befitting her reputation as a powerful and influential figure. Her gaze conveys a sense of introspection and sophistication, while the faint hint of a smile gracing her lips adds an air of subtle allure. The play of light and shadow in the painting adds depth and dimension to Isabella’s features, enhancing the overall realism of the portrait. Titian’s skillful use of chiaroscuro, a technique that contrasts light and dark tones, gives the portrait a lifelike quality and a sense of depth.
The background of the painting is relatively simple, allowing the focus to remain on Isabella’s presence and personality, her elegance, grace, and authority. Through meticulous attention to detail, refined use of color and light, and a keen understanding of portraiture, Titian created a lasting image that captures the essence of Isabella’s character and her place in history.
For a PowerPoint, titled 9 Portraits of Isabella d’Este, please… Check HERE!… Check HERE!
An Interesting Video about Isabella d’Este the Marchioness of Mantua during Early Renaissance Italy by World History Encyclopedia (8:09 min)
In 1400, a competition was announced for a bronze double door at the Baptistery in Florence. While such contests were no rarity, this one is considered a classic of its kind. A jury of 34 declared the winner to be Lorenzo Ghiberti, whose composition was regarded as better balanced, not to mention its using around seven kilograms less of the valuable material. Hardly any history of Renaissance art fails to mention this event as a founding moment. The Brunelleschi vs. Ghiberti competition is the best introduction, in my humble opinion, to 15th-century Italian Renaissance Art. https://idole-rivalen.khm.at/en/
From the life of Filippo Brunelleschi… in the year 1401, now that sculpture had risen to so great a height, it was determined to reconstruct the two bronze doors of the Church and Baptistery of San Giovanni, since, from the death of Andrea Pisano to that day, they had not had any masters capable of executing them. This intention being, therefore, communicated to those sculptors who were then in Tuscany, they were sent for, and each man was given a provision and the space of a year to make one scene; and among those called upon were Filippo and Donato, each of them being required to make one scene by himself, in competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacopo della Fonte [Jacopo della Quercia], Simone da Colle, Francesco di Valdambrina, and Niccolo d’ Arezzo. These scenes, being finished in the same year and being brought together for comparison, were all most beautiful and different one from the other; one was well designed and badly wrought, as was that of Donato; another was very well designed and diligently wrought, but the composition of the scene, with the gradual diminution of the figures, was not good, as was the case with that of Jacopo della Quercia; a third was poor in invention and in the figures, which was the manner wherein Francesco di Valdambrina had executed his; and the worst of all were those of Niccolo d’ Arezzo and Simone da Colle. The best was that of Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti, which had design, diligence, invention, art, and the figures very well wrought. Nor was that of Filippo much inferior, wherein he had represented Abraham sacrificing Isaac; and in that scene a slave who is drawing a thorn from his foot, while he is awaiting Abraham and the ass is browsing, deserves no little praise.
The scenes, then, being exhibited, Filippo and Donato were not satisfied with any save with that of Lorenzo, and they judged him to be better qualified for that work than themselves and the others who had made the other scenes. And so with good reasons they persuaded the Consuls to allot the work to Lorenzo, showing that thus both the public and the private interest would be best served; and this was indeed the true goodness of friendship, excellence without envy, and a sound judgment in the knowledge of their own selves, whereby they deserved more praise than if they had executed the work to perfection. Happy spirits! who, while they were assisting one another, took delight in praising the labors of others. How unhappy are those of our own day, who, not sated with injuring each other, burst with envy while rending others? The Consuls besought Filippo to undertake the work in company with Lorenzo, but he refused, being minded rather to be first in an art of his own than an equal or a second in that work. Wherefore he presented the scene that he had wrought in bronze to Cosimo de’ Medici, who after a time had it placed on the dossal of the altar in the old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, where it is to be found at present; and that of Donato was placed in the Guild of the Exchange.
From the Life of Lorenzo Ghiberti… He had not been long absent from home when the plague ceased, and the Signoria of Florence and the art of the merchants, seeing that there were a number of excellent artists in sculpture at that time, both foreigners and Florentines, thought that it would be a favourable opportunity to make the other two doors of S. Giovanni, the ancient and principal church of the city, a matter which had frequently been discussed. It was arranged by them that all the masters considered to be the best in Italy should be invited to come to Florence to compete in making bronze panels similar to those which Andrea Pisano had done for the first door. Ghiberti was working at Lesare at the time but although offers of higher wages were promised, he availed nothing, for to Lorenzo it seemed worth a thousand years to return to Florence, and he accordingly set out and reached his home in safety. Many foreigners had already arrived and reported themselves to the consuls of the arts. From among them seven masters in all were selected: three Florentines, and the remainder Tuscans. A provision of money was set apart for them, and it was stipulated that within a year each of them should produce, as an example of his skill, a bronze panel of the same size as those of the first door. It was determined that the scene represented should be the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham, which was considered to be a good subject in which the masters could grapple with the difficulties of the art, because it comprises a landscape, figures both nude and draped, and animals, while the figures in the foreground might be made in full relief, those in the middle distance in half-relief, and those in the background in bas-relief. The competitors for this work were: Filippo di ser Brunellesco, Donato and Lorenzo di Bartoluccio, Florentines, and Jacopo dalla Quercia of Siena, Niccolo d’Arezzo his pupil, Francesco di Vandabrina, 1 and Simone da Colie, sumamed “of the bronzes,” who all promised the consuls to have their panels ready at the appointed time.
They set to work and devoted all their study and diligence, all their strength and knowledge, to surpass each other, keeping what they did close secret, so that they might not light upon the same ideas. Lorenzo alone, who enjoyed the help of Bartoluccio, who made him take great pains and prepare many models before he resolved upon adopting any one of them, continually brought his fellow citizens, and also passing strangers if they understood the trade, to see his work and hear their opinion. By the aid of their criticisms he was enabled to produce a model which was beautifully made and absolutely without a fault. Having shaped his figures and cast the whole in bronze, it proved excellent; and he and his father, Bartoluccio, polished it with such devotion and patience that it was impossible for it to have been better finished. When the time arrived for it to be exhibited in the competition, his panel and those of the other masters were handed over to the art of the merchants to be adjudicated upon. When they came to be examined by the consuls and several other citizens many various opinions were expressed. Numbers of strangers had assembled in Florence, some painters, some sculptors, and some goldsmiths, who were invited by the consuls to come and judge the works in conjunction with others of the same professions who lived in Florence. They numbered thirty-four persons in all, each of them being an adept in his art, and although there were differences of opinion among them, some preferring the style of one and some that of another, yet they were agreed that Filippo di ser Brunellesco and Lorenzo di Bartoluccio had composed and finished a larger number of figures better than Donato had done, although his panel exhibited great powers of design. In that of Jacopo dalla Quercia the figures were good but lacking in delicacy, in spite of the good design and the care bestowed. The work of Francesco di Vandabrina contained good heads and was well finished, but the composition was confused. That of Simone da Colle was a good cast, because he was a founder by profession, but the design was not very good. The production of Niccolo d’Arezzo, showing great skill, was marred by stunted figures and absence of finish. Lorenzo’s alone was perfect in every part, and it may still be seen in the audience chamber of the art of the merchants. The whole scene was well designed and the composition excellent, the figures being slender and graceful, the pose admirable and so beautifully finished that it did not look as if it had been cast and polished, but rather as if it had been created by a breath. Donato and Filippo, when they perceived what diligence Lorenzo had devoted to his work, withdrew to one side and agreed that the work ought to be given to him, for it seemed to them that public and private interests would thus be best served, and as Lorenzo was a young man, not past twenty, he would be able to realize in the production of this work the great promise of his beautiful scene, which; according to their judgment, he had made more excellently than the others: adding that it would be more shameful to dispute his right to preeminence than generous to admit it. Accordingly Lorenzo began on that door opposite the opera of S. Giovanni,’ constructing a large wooden frame for a part of it of the exact size he desired, in the shape of a frame with the ornamentation of heads at the angles about the spaces for containing the scenes and the surrounding friezes. After he had made the mold and dried it with all diligence, he set up a huge furnace, which I remember having seen, and filled the frame with metal. He did this in some premises he had bought opposite S. Maria Nuova, where the hospital of the weavers, known as the Threshing floor, now stands. But realising that all was not going well, he did not lose courage or become distracted, but traced the cause of the disorder and altered his mold with great quickness without anyone knowing it, recasting the world, which came out most successfully. He went on similarly with the rest of the work, casting each scene separately, and then putting them in their appointed places. The division of the scenes was similar to that adopted by Andrea Pisano in the first door designed for him by Giotto.
It is always interesting to go as close as possible to primary sources!
For a PowerPoint on the competition panels, please… Check HERE!
Idols & Rivals, Artists in Competition (September 20, 2022 – January 8, 2023) was an interesting Exhibition in the Kunsthistorischen Museum in Vienna. It showed how in antiquity, the Renaissance, and the Baroque, artists competed with one another and how, in addition, they measured themselves against ancient models. This kind of competition has brought forth some of the best-known works in the history of art. Among the competitors were Brunelleschi and Ghiberti… https://idole-rivalen.khm.at/en/
Born into a family of artists, Giovanni Bellini frequented, with his brother Gentile, the studio of their father, Jacopo Bellini, a painter of Gothic training who soon mastered the principles of Florentine Renaissance art. The young artist, write the Musée Jacquemart-André experts, Neville Rowley and Pierre Curie, introducing the Exhibition GIOVANNI BELLINI Influences croisées (Paris, from 3 March to 17 July 2023), immersed himself in the art alongside his father, brother and his brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna, whom his sister Nicolosia had just married. Classicism, sculptural forms, and a good command of Mantegna’s perspective had a great influence on the artist… Is Bellini’s Portrait of a Young Man à l’Antique, presented in the exhibition, the Portrait of Andrea Mantegna? https://www.musee-jacquemart-andre.com/en/giovanni-bellini
Mantegna’s marriage to Nicolosia Bellini was a positive development for both parties involved. Giorgio Vasari describes the event in his own, matter of fact, way… Andrea, thus left alone in the said chapel (Chapel of S. Cristofano, which is in the Church of the Eremite Friars of S. Agostino in Padua), painted the four Evangelists, which were held very beautiful. By reason of this and other works Andrea began to be watched with great expectation, and with hopes that he would attain to that success to which he actually did attain; wherefore Jacopo Bellini, the Venetian painter, father of Gentile and Giovanni, and rival of Squarcione, contrived to get him to marry his daughter, the sister of Gentile. Hearing this, Squarcione fell into such disdain against Andrea that they were enemies ever afterwards; and in proportion as Squarcione had formerly been ever praising the works of Andrea, so from that day onward did he ever decry them in public.http://www.travelingintuscany.com/art/gutenberg/vasarilives3.htm
The marriage of Andrea Mantegna to Nicolosia Bellini was significant in several ways. The marriage, for example, brought Mantegna into contact with the Bellini family, which had a significant influence on the development of Venetian art. Mantegna was already a highly respected artist in his own right, but his marriage to Nicolosia helped to solidify his reputation and establish him as a leading figure in the Italian Renaissance. For the younger brother-in-law, Giovanni Bellini, the marriage led to a cross-pollination of ideas and approaches between the two brothers-in-law. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that the two artists had, occasionally, a close working relationship. Mantegna’s influence on Bellini can be seen in his use of perspective, which was a technique that Mantegna had mastered. Furthermore, it is believed that Giovanni Bellini was influenced by Mantegna’s interest in classical antiquity, his Portrait of a Young Man à l’Antique is evidence enough, of the use of color, light, and shadow to create a sense of depth and three-dimensionality.
While in Paris, attending the brilliant Exhibition GIOVANNI BELLINI Influences Croisées, at the Musée Jacquemart-André, I was surprised, most pleasantly, by Bellini’s Portrait of a Young Man à l’Antique. The Exhibition curators present this unusual painting as a possible portrait of Andrea Mantegna. Searching the history and provenance of the painting, I came upon different identification names… Portrait of a young man à l’Antique, Portrait of a Humanist, or Poeta Laureato. Not just so, this is, I believe, a little-known painting with a complicated history of credit. It has been attributed to Antonello da Messina, Alvise Vivarini, and Giovanni Bellini. The depicted young man has been identified as the painter Andrea Mantegna, or the poet Raffaele Zovenzoni. Do I know the true identity of the artist and the represented young man? The answer is No! What I know is that the Portrait I saw was eye-catching, magnetic, bold, and alluring.
The painting depicts a young man dressed in classical clothing, with a serene expression on his face. The background of the painting is a neutral brown color, which helps to emphasize the figure’s features and clothing. What I found striking is the incredible level of detail in the young man’s face, which, painted with great care and with subtle gradations of color, creates a lifelike appearance. Painted in front of a dark background, the young man is depicted wearing an olive-green and brown garment à l’Antique. His rich auburn hair is crowned by a wreath of myrtle, he features a strong chin, a straight nose, and olive-green coloured eyes! Whoever the young man is, I would like to believe this is a liking of Andrea Mantegna, Giovanni Bellini’s painting is a beautiful example of Renaissance portraiture, characterized by its attention to detail, lifelike rendering, and incorporation of classical imagery. The painting is a testament to Bellini’s skill as an artist and his contribution to the development of Renaissance art in Venice.
Finally, after centuries of isolated beginnings and endings, rediscoveries and losses, Venetian workers in the mid-15th century commenced a tradition of enameling on glass vessels that would become widely disseminated in other European glassworking cultures—and continue to be practiced, without interruption, to the present day. A new BLOG POST on The Enameled Murano Beaker at Musée Jacquemart-André is my lead to investigating the art of glass enameling in the Venetian lagoon. https://www.cmog.org/article/enameled-glass-vessels-1425-bce-1800-decorating-process
I know little about Enameled Glass, but the Murano beaker I saw at Musée Jacquemart-André got me interested in investigating its type further. The internet site of the Museum, unfortunately, provided no information on the enameled beaker in its collection. The Corning Museum of Glass, however, provided valuable information on Enameled Glass in general. Based on the information I read, let me answer some questions starting with What, and How https://home.cmog.org/
What is Enameled Glass? Enameled glass is a type of glass that has been decorated with a layer, or more, of colored or opaque vitreous enamel. For a most useful and detailed description of how an Enameled Glass piece is created, you can read a 15th-century manuscript in the Library of San Salvatore in Bologna. It was brought to scholarly attention in 1982 by Hugh Tait… the text says: To paint glass, that is to say, cups or any other works in glass with smalti or any colour you please, take the smalti you wish to use, and let them be soft and fusible, and pound them upon marble or porphyry in the same way that the goldsmiths do. Then wash the powder and apply it upon your glass as you please and let the colour dry thoroughly; then put the glass upon the rim of the chamber in which glasses are cooled, on the side from which the glasses are taken out cold, and gradually introduce it into the chamber towards the fire which comes out of the furnace and take care you do not push too fast lest the heat should split it, and when you see that it is thoroughly heated, take it up with the pontello and fix it to the pontello and put it in the mouth of the furnace, heating it and introducing it gradually. When you see the smalti shine and that they have flowed well, take the glass out and put it in the chamber to cool, and it is done… All About Glass | Corning Museum of Glass (cmog.org)
How did Enameled Glass develop, chronologically up to and including the 16th century, in Murano, Italy? A. 1291 AD: The furnaces of all glassmakers in Venice were relocated to the island of Murano due to the risk of fires. This was the start of the concentration of the Venetian glassmaking industry in Murano. B. 14th century: During this period, Venetian glassmakers began to gain renown for their high-quality and innovative creations. The art of enameling glass, known in Venice since the Middle Ages, was probably inspired by Byzantine models. C. 15th and 16th centuries: The peak of the art of enameled glass in Murano was achieved. Artists such as Angelo Barovier and the workshop of the “Seguso” family introduced a refined style of painting on glass with enamels, creating objects of extraordinary beauty. During this time, Venetian Enameled Glass, often decorated with scenes from contemporary life or mythology, was sought after by the wealthiest and most powerful individuals in Europe.
According to Ferucci, Barovier Mentasti, and Tonini… The Annunciation was a subject of Venetian enameled decoration on glass since the early seventies of the 15th century, at least. A list, for example, dated March 31, 1474, of glass beakers by Giovanni da Lodi, enameller active in Murano, includes a beaker with the Annunciation (uno cieto a nuntiata). The 200-2001 excavations conducted in the Monastery of Santa Chiara in Padua revealed four enameled Glass beakers with an Annunciation scene dating towards the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century.
The four Padua beakers with the Annunciation show the Virgin announced and the archangel Gabriel, each inside a simple roundel of white or yellow colour. The only difference is that in one of the beakers, a plush yellow and white laurel wreath is added around the white roundel. According to the authors, this embellished beaker is similar to the Annunciation blue beaker kept in the Musée Jacquemart André in Paris. Édouard André, (1833-1894), the authors add, and Nélie Jacquemart (1841-1912), his wife, collected Italian art and decorative art, showing a particular interest also in Venetian art, like the blue glass beaker. The only difference, according to my humble opinion, is that the green/terracotta red wreath of the Musée Jacquemart André is thinner and less luxurious looking, yet perfectly fitting and complementing the composition’s colour scheme.
The next information comes from the article of Françoise Barbe and Erwin Baumgartner. The authors stress the importance of the archaeological discovery in the convent of Santa Chiara in Padua. They also stress the stylistic similarities between the two glass beakers (in Padua and in Paris). However, when a glass analysis was performed for each glass beaker, the results showed differences in their composition. Thus, Barbe and Baumgartner presented three questions: 1. Was the Paris glass beaker in the façon de Venise, produced during the Renaissance period, but in a different location than Venice? Was it a copy made during a later chronological period to complete, for example, an antique-style series? Or was it a fake? The authors believe that there is no decisive answer to any one of the three questions and further investigation is in demand.
While in Paris, visiting the Exhibition GIOVANNI BELLINI Influences croisées (March 3 to July 17, 2023) at the Jacquemart-André Museum, I came upon a painting, Giorgone’s Madonna Cook, I did not know. The painting made an entirely unexpected impression on me. It is part of a private collection, on deposit at the Gemäldegalerie, in Berlin, and however hard I searched (on the Internet), little did I find. https://www.musee-jacquemart-andre.com/en/giovanni-bellini
Giorgio Barbarelli, universally known as Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1478-Venezia, 1510), is one of the most enigmatic painters of the Renaissance. Very little is known about Giorgione’s early life and training, but he is believed to have studied, along with Titian, with the Venetian painter Giovanni Bellini, who was a prominent figure in the Renaissance art scene. Unfortunately, Giorgione’s life and career were cut short by his premature death at the age of 33, probably from the plague. Despite his short career, he had a significant influence on the development of the Venetian school of painting, and his legacy continues to inspire and intrigue art lovers and scholars to this day.
A major innovator, Giorgione is acclaimed as the father of modern Venetian painting of the 16th century. As a student of Giovanni Bellini, Giorgione’s style in painting was characterized by his use of atmospheric effects, delicate modeling, and a subdued color palette. Influenced by Leonardo, the young Venetian artist is also known for his mastery of sfumato, a technique in which colours are blended together in such a way that they appear to merge seamlessly, creating a soft, hazy effect. Finally, paintings by Flemish artists motivated Giorgone to further explore the application of multiple thin layers of paint, so as to give a new dimension to light and colour. https://archive.org/details/giorgionemytheni0000unse/page/n3/mode/2up
What I find appealing is how Giorgone often painted landscapes or cityscapes as backdrops to his compositions, using them to create a sense of depth and space. The landscape scene in his Virgin and Child called Madonna Cook exhibited at the Jacquemart-André, caught my attention. It looks sparse and unfinished(?), yet a tower, a ‘leitmotiv’ in his landscape repertoire, is prominently displayed.
At the same time when Florence was acquiring such fame by reason of the works of Leonardo, no little adornment was conferred on Venice by the talent and excellence of one of her citizens, who surpassed by a great measure not only the Bellini, whom the Venetians held in such esteem, but also every other master who had painted up to that time in that city. This was Giorgio, who was born at Castelfranco in the territory of Treviso, in the year 1478, when the Doge was Giovanni Mozzenigo, brother of Doge Piero. In time, from the nature of his person and from the greatness of his mind, Giorgio came to be called Giorgione; and although he was born from very humble stock, nevertheless he was not otherwise than gentle and of good breeding throughout his whole life. He was brought up in Venice, and took unceasing delight in the joys of love; and the sound of the lute gave him marvellous pleasure, so that in his day he played and sang so divinely that he was often employed for that purpose at various musical assemblies and gatherings of noble persons. He studied drawing, and found it greatly to his taste; and in this nature favoured him so highly, that he, having become enamoured of her beauties, would never represent anything in his works without copying it from life; and so much was he her slave, imitating her continuously, that he acquired the name not only of having surpassed Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, but also of being the rival of the masters who were working in Tuscany and who were the creators of the modern manner. Giorgione had seen some things by the hand of Leonardo with a beautiful gradation of colours, and with extraordinary relief, effected, as has been related, by means of dark shadows; and this manner pleased him so much [Pg 110] that he was forever studying it as long as he lived, and in oil-painting he imitated it greatly. Taking pleasure in the delights of good work, he was ever selecting, for putting into his pictures, the greatest beauty and the greatest variety that he could find. And nature gave him a spirit so benign, and with this, both in oil-painting and in fresco, he made certain living forms and other things so soft, so well harmonized, and so well blended in the shadows, that many of the excellent masters of his time were forced to confess that he had been born to infuse spirit into figures and to counterfeit the freshness of living flesh better than any other painter, not only in Venice, but throughout the whole world…http://www.travelingintuscany.com/art/gutenberg/vasarilives4.htm#Page_107
For a Student Activity, inspired by Giorgone’s Madonna Cook, please… Check HERE!
On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves, and would not allow anyone to carry merchandise through the temple courts. And as he taught them, he said, “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations’? But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.’” The chief priests and the teachers of the law heard this and began looking for a way to kill him, for they feared him, because the whole crowd was amazed at his teaching. When evening came, Jesus and his disciples went out of the city. (Mark 11:15-19 Holy Monday – Μεγάλη Δευτέρα) https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark%2011&version=NIV
El Greco’s painting of Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple in The Minneapolis Institute of Arts presents a dramatic scene from the New Testament, told in all the Gospels. According to the Gospels, Jesus entered the Temple in Jerusalem and became angered by the commercial activities taking place there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and drove them out, accusing them of turning the temple into a marketplace. This scene was rarely painted in its own right before the Reformation. After the Council of Trent, it gained a new significance and for the Catholics, the image came to symbolize the purification of the Church through internal reform. https://collections.artsmia.org/art/278/christ-driving-the-money-changers-from-the-temple-el-greco
The Minneapolis painting is known for its powerful composition, dynamic figures, and vibrant colors. It was probably executed in Rome, in about 1570/1575. Set in a grand architectural interior, the scene reflects El Greco’s experiments with Italian linear perspective and break from the Byzantine style he employed in the Greek icons painted, while in Crete, in his youth. The composition seems less crowded, and the figures, distorted, but fuller and more clearly articulated, dominate the spatial setting. The lines are bold, the brushstrokes are expressive, and the colours are intense and pulsating. The use of light and shadow is masterful, casting a theatrical glow over the scene, highlighting the central figure of Christ, and adding to the sense of drama. Overall, the painting is a powerful and emotive depiction of this moment in the life of Jesus. https://collections.artsmia.org/art/278/christ-driving-the-money-changers-from-the-temple-el-greco
Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple is a theme that interested El Greco throughout his career. He painted this subject at least five times. What distinguishes the Minneapolis version is the inclusion of four male portrait heads in the lower-right corner of the painting. It turns out that these four men are famous artists whose lives and work inspired El Greco. They are four major figures in the arts during the Renaissance, and they are, from the left: Titian, Michelangelo, Giulio Clovio, and Raphael.
For Holy Monday – Μεγάλη Δευτέρα and a PowerPoint of all five versions of El Greco’s painting of Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple, please… Check HERE!
Giovanni Bellini opened the way to the art of colour and tones that came to be characteristic of the art of the sixteenth century in Venice… write the Musée Jacquemart-André experts, Neville Rowley and Pierre Curie, introducing the Exhibition GIOVANNI BELLINI Influences croisées (Paris, from 3 March to 17 July 2023). For a private, intimate, Museum like the Jacquemart-André, gathering fifty artworks of the great Venetian master, from public and private European collections, some of which were put on display for the first time, this exhibition was one more great accomplishment. The Exhibition’s goal is to compare the artist’s works with those of his intellectual models, and thus showcase how his artistic language has never ceased to renew itself while developing its very own unique style. Not an easy task… but in creating an effective ‘dialogue’ between Bellini’s works and the ‘models’ that inspired them… the Museum experts were successful in organizing a most interesting Exhibition! While in Paris for four days, the Musée Jacquemart-André Exhibition on Bellini was the first to visit, and thoroughly enjoy it! https://www.musee-jacquemart-andre.com/en/giovanni-bellini
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, considered one of the greatest Venetian painters of the 15th century. Born in Venice, he was part of a famous family of artists, including his father Jacopo Bellini, his brother Gentile, and his brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna. His style is characterized by the use of rich, glowing colors, an interest in light and atmospheric effects, and his ability to create a sense of depth and space in his paintings. He is known for his religious paintings, which often featured devotional themes such as the Madonna and Child.
The Madonna and Child at a Ledge with an Apple, also known as The Philips Madonna, caught my eye. I am always attracted to Byzantine-influenced Venetian paintings of the Madonna, and Bellini’s Phillips Madonna, painted circa 1460 was no exception. In 1453, when Constantinople fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire, thousands of refugees flocked to Venice, bringing with them many Greek manuscripts, icons, and relics. It was only natural for the young artist, who had just set up an independent workshop in 1459 in the parish of San Lio, near the Rialto Bridge, to be attracted to an artistic tradition with deep roots in his native city. https://www.musee-jacquemart-andre.com/en/giovanni-bellini
According to Sotheby’s experts, who auctioned the painting on the 27th of January 2022, Bellini’s composition echoes the terracotta reliefs of this same theme by Donatello, whose own work had made such an impression in Venetian artistic circles during the previous two decades. The painting’s Child is also connected, by Mauro Lucco, to the putti in the so-called “Trono di Saturno,” a pair of ancient reliefs that decorated an archway between Piazza San Marco and the Frezzaria. These amazing Roman bas-reliefs furnished inspiration not just for Donatello and Giovanni Bellini, but also for Mantegna, Titian, and Sansovino.
A delightful painting in an Exhibition worth visiting!
For a Student Activity on GIOVANNI BELLINI Influences croisées, please… Check HERE!