The Bronze Hellenistic Dancer at the MET

Bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer, 3rd–2nd century BC, Bronze, 20.5 × 8.9 × 11.4 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/255408?pkgids=351&pos=20&nextInternalLocale=en&ft=*&oid=255408&rpp=4&exhibitionId=%7Bc81fa618-19f5-47a1-a089-fd1b22309109%7D&pg=1

Dance is an ephemeral art. Is it about sentiment, imagination, and expression? Is The Bronze Hellenistic Dancer at the MET the quintessence of a Hellenistic Dancer’s soul?

The MET Dancer emerges, as if from the shadows, draped in layers of gleaming veils that conceal and reveal her movements. With each step, she gracefully twists and turns to the left, casting a downward gaze. As she dances, her left hand lifts a veil over her left hip, while her right arm, holding folds of fabric, shields the lower part of her veiled head, which arches backward. The ethereal dance causes her dress to swirl around her body, and the edges of her enveloping cloak flare out at her sides.

The complex motion of this dancer, the MET experts tell us, is conveyed exclusively through the interaction of the body with several layers of dress… This Hellenistic Bronze statuette of a Dancer not only provides insights into the cultural context of its creation but also invites speculation about the statue’s original owner. Questions arise: Where was this captivating figure displayed? What thoughts and emotions did she elicit? How much joy did she bring to those who beheld her? https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/255408?pkgids=351&pos=20&nextInternalLocale=en&ft=*&oid=255408&rpp=4&exhibitionId=%7Bc81fa618-19f5-47a1-a089-fd1b22309109%7D&pg=1

Quoting the MET experts… The bronze Dancer performs a private dance for the viewer—a kind of dance of the seven veils—that is both alluring and surprisingly contemporary in appearance, having been rendered in a realistic style. Nonetheless, it is undoubtedly very much a product of the ethos of the Hellenistic Age, the work of a master sculptor perhaps from Alexandria, Egypt… This dancer has been convincingly identified as one of the professional entertainers, a combination of mime and dancer, for which the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria was famous in antiquity… https://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/now-at-the-met/2016/pergamon and https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/255408?pkgids=351&pos=20&nextInternalLocale=en&ft=*&oid=255408&rpp=4&exhibitionId=%7Bc81fa618-19f5-47a1-a089-fd1b22309109%7D&pg=1

She is, luckily, not alone. In addition to the captivating Hellenistic Bronze statue showcased at the MET, the collection also features a charming array of clay statuettes portraying dancers.

Terracotta statuette of a Dancing Woman, 3rd century BC, Terracotta, 24.1 × 10.2 × 8.3 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248712
Terracotta statuette of a Dancing Woman, 3rd century BC, Terracotta, 15.2 × 6.2 × 8.6 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248601
Terracotta statuette of a Veiled Dancer, 3rd century BC, Terracotta, H. 20.0 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/251216

Sculptures of dancers from this era often captured the dynamic and graceful movements of the human body, showcasing the Hellenistic fascination with naturalism and the portrayal of emotion. These sculpted dancers, whether in bronze or clay, reflected the cultural significance of dance as a form of entertainment, religious ritual, and social expression. The intricate detailing of their poses and flowing garments not only celebrated the physical prowess of the human form but also conveyed a sense of vitality and joy, providing a testament to the Hellenistic commitment to aesthetic excellence and the embodiment of life in art.

For a Student Activity on Hellenistic Dancing, please… Check HERE!

Study for Ta Kalanta by Nikephoros Lytras

Nikephoros Lytras, Greek Artist, 1832 – 1904
Study for Τα Κάλαντα (Carols), 1870s, Oil on Cardboard, 17,3 x 22,5 cm, National Gallery – Alexandros Soutsos Museum, Corfu Annex, Greece
https://www.nationalgallery.gr/en/artwork/study-for-carols/

Good Evening Kings, / if it’s your will / the divine birth of Christ / I’ll sing in your mansion. / Christ is born today, / in the city of Bethlehem, / the heavens are rejoicing, / all the nature rejoices. / Inside the cave is being born, / in a manger of horses, / The King of heavens / The Creator of all. / In this house, we’ve come / may no stone ever crack, / and the master of the house / may live for many years! Carols, known as Kalanta in Greek, are a beloved tradition for children worldwide. In Greece, during the Christmas season and New Year, Kalanta is joyously sung by children with great enthusiasm and gusto. This festive scene is precisely captured in our Christmas Eve BLOG POST titled… Study for Ta Kalanta by Nikephoros Lytras. https://hcc.edu.gr/greek-christmas-carols-meaning-and-translations/

This is an iconic work in Greek art, created in the 1870s while Lytras was Professor of Painting at the National Technical University in Athens. The painting, a genre scene inspired by Greek culture, is characteristic of Lytras’ style, which reflects the influence of the School of Munich. It combines academic principles, a realistic and detailed representation of what is presented, and a romanticized approach to the genre subject matter, a group of children singing Kalanta, the festive tradition during the Holidays Season.

The painting I am presenting, Study for Ta Kalanta by Nikephoros Lytras, is exhibited in the Corfu Annex of the National Gallery – Alexandros Soutsos Museum of Greece. It is, as the title connotates, a ‘Study” of the iconic larger oil on canvas painting by Lytras, Ta Kalanta, held in a private collection. Both paintings, apart from capturing a festive moment in Greek tradition, reflect the broader artistic and cultural movements of their time.

Nikephoros Lytras, Greek Artist, 1832 – 1904
Τα Κάλαντα (Carols), 1872, Oil on Canvas, 59×90 cm, Private collection https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lytras_Nikiforos_Carols.jpeg

Both paintings depict a group of five children in traditional attire, singing Kalanta in the rhythm of the drum and the flute. They are not alone. In front of the open door of a humble household, the five protagonists are watched by a young mother, cradling a baby in her arms. Interestingly, a sixth boy is added in the final version of Ta Kalanta. He emerges from behind the high fence wall, next to the courtyard’s leafless tree, gazing with curiosity at the unfolding scene of merriment.

Nikephoros Lytras masterfully crafted a scene of fading light, with the moon ascending in the sky and a small lantern flickering in the firm grip of one of the performers. This comes as no surprise, given that during Lytras’s era, children would sing carols after sunset, a tradition that continues to thrive in numerous rural regions of Greece to this day.

The artist intends to convey more than what I have already presented. In both of his paintings, a rich tapestry of symbolism unfolds. The mother’s offering of pomegranate fruits symbolizes not only rebirth but also abundance. The presence of a straw broom by the door and a leafless tree in the courtyard serves as a poignant representation of hardships and poverty, yet it carries an underlying message of hope for brighter days ahead. Adjacent to the other side of the door, an ancient Greek sculpture of a Nike figure hints at the enduring strength of the Greek people, serving as the foundation for future growth and fortune.

Both paintings of Τα Κάλαντα are regarded as masterpieces within Lytras’ body of work, exemplifying his capacity to seamlessly integrate technical expertise with a profound comprehension of Greek culture. By skillfully depicting children as the bearers and preservers of Greek cultural legacies Lytras connects the past with the present and sends the joyful message of camaraderie of all people, defying limitations, and discrimination. Celebrated for their emotional resonance, these artworks highlight the artist’s dedication to encapsulating the essence of Life.

Χρόνια Πολλά και πάντα ΚΑΛΑ!!!

For a PowerPoint titled 14 Masterpieces by Nikephoros Lytras, please… Check HERE!

Sleeping Eros

Bronze statue of Eros sleeping, 3rd–2nd century BC, Bronze, 41.9 × 35.6 × 85.2 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/254502

Attributed possibly to the archaic Greek poet Sappho, the following fragment of Greek lyric poetry is preserved by the Alexandrian Grammarian Hephaestion. It reminds me of Sleeping Eros, the beloved Hellenistic bronze statue displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The verses paint a vivid scene… The moon and the Pleiades have set, / it is midnight, / time is passing, / but I sleep alone. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midnight_poem

In Greek mythology, Eros, portrayed as the son of Aphrodite and Ares, is the god of love, desire, and attraction. Various myths and stories are associated with Eros, in which he played a prominent role in matters of love and relationships. Well-known stories involving Eros include the myths of Rhodopis and Euthynicus, Apollo and Daphne, and his own love story, the myth of Psyche—a mortal princess who became the object of his affection. All these stories explore themes of love, trust, and the trials involved in achieving fulfillment with Eros projected as a significant figure in Greek mythology.

Eros is often depicted in various poses and contexts in ancient art, usually as a mischievous and playful winged youth armed with a bow and arrows. The arrows are said to have the power to incite love or desire in those they pierce. The Sleeping Eros statue in the MET depicts, on the other hand, a young, winged infant Cupid in a relaxed, reclining position, emphasizing the peaceful and gentle aspects of the god of love.

Bronze statue of Eros sleeping, 3rd–2nd century BC, Bronze, 41.9 × 35.6 × 85.2 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/254502

In the realm of Hellenistic sculpture, the motif of the Sleeping Eros emerged as a captivating and symbolic representation, offering a glimpse into the nuanced artistic expressions of love and vulnerability during this period. The Hellenistic era, spanning from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE to the establishment of the Roman Empire in 31 BCE, witnessed a remarkable evolution in art, marked by a departure from the rigid idealism of Classical Greece. Hellenistic period statues were known for their attention to detail, realistic anatomy, dynamic poses, naturalism in the composition, and the expression of strong emotionalism along with the introduction of the ‘genre’ and a shift in artistic sensibilities.

In the realm of Hellenistic art, ‘genre’ refers to the inclusion of everyday life scenes and common people as subjects in sculptures, paintings, and other artistic expressions. This departure from the rigid canons of Classical Greek art allowed artists to explore a wider range of emotions, experiences, and individual characteristics. The Sleeping Eros serves as a poignant manifestation of these transformations, capturing the subtleties of emotion and narrative in sculpture.

Bronze statue of Eros sleeping, 3rd–2nd century BC, Bronze, 41.9 × 35.6 × 85.2 cm, the MET, NY, USA https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/254502

Eros is portrayed in a state of repose, inviting viewers into an intimate exploration of the deity’s more tender and human aspects. As we delve into the intricacies of the Sleeping Eros sculpture in the MET, we untangle not only the technical abilities of the Hellenistic artist who created it, but also the deeper cultural and philosophical underpinnings that inform this artistic motif. Through a lens of mythology, symbolism, and craftsmanship, the Sleeping Eros sculpture offer a captivating window into the Hellenistic worldview, where the divine and the mortal meet in a harmonious dance of form and emotion.

According to the MET experts, during the Hellenistic period… Young children enjoyed great favor, whether in mythological form, as baby Herakles or Eros, or in genre scenes, playing with each other or with pets. The MET Eros, the god of love, has been brought down to earth and disarmed, a conception considerably different from that of the powerful, often cruel, and capricious being so often addressed in Archaic poetry. One of the few bronze statues to have survived from antiquity, this figure of a plump baby in a relaxed pose conveys a sense of the immediacy and naturalistic detail that the medium of bronze made possible. He is clearly based on firsthand observation! https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/254502

For a Student Activity inspired by the MET Sleeping Eros, please… Check HERE!

Another aspect of Eros’s character and artistic representation is offered in Eros and the Bee, a February 2023 BLOG POST by Teacher Curator… https://www.teachercurator.com/art/eros-and-the-bee/

Corinthian Alabastron

Corinthian Alabastron, 600 BC, Orientalizing Period, Terracotta, black-figure, Height: 28,5 cm, Canellopoulos Museum, Athens, Greece https://camu.gr/item/korinthiako-alavastro/

The Paul and Alexandra Canellopoulos Museum in Athens, Greece, is a small treasure trove of outstanding antiquities, showcasing the Museum’s Ancient Art collection spanning from Prehistory to the Roman Era. The collection boasts objects dating back to the Neolithic period (6000-3200 BC), followed by representative examples from civilizations that thrived in the region during the Bronze Age (3000-1100 BC), the Early Iron Age (1100-88 BC), and the Archaic period (7th-6th century BC). Notably, the Archaic period exhibits Corinthian vases adorned with decorative motifs inspired by imaginary beings from the East, such as the Corinthian Arybalos, which I would like to present to you today!

So… Let’s explore the How of an amazing small masterpiece in the Canellopoulos Museum, in Athens… by answering some questions!

How can we best describe the characteristics of the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek Art?

The Orientalizing period in ancient Greek art refers to a significant phase that occurred during the 7th century BCE. It is characterized by a notable influence of artistic motifs and elements from the Near East and Egypt, which were collectively known as the “Orient” to the ancient Greeks. During this period, Greek city-states began to engage in increased trade and cultural contact with the civilizations of the Near East, such as Phoenicia, Assyria, and Egypt. As a result, Greek artists and craftsmen were exposed to new artistic styles, techniques, and iconography, which they integrated into their own artistic expressions.

A key characteristic of the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek art is the adoption of Eastern motifs that included animals like lions and sphinxes, as well as mythical creatures and floral patterns. Greeks, however, were always fond of expressing narrative in their vase painting and they appropriated Near Eastern creatures like the sphinx, for example, or the siren and altered their basic function by making them a part of a larger story. Orientalizing art may look Oriental on the surface but is still recognizably Greek below.

It is important to note that the Orientalizing period was not a homogenous style but rather a phase of artistic transition that laid the groundwork for the subsequent Archaic period. The influence of the Orient on Greek art gradually declined during the 6th century BCE as the Greek city-states developed their own distinctive artistic styles, leading to the flourishing of the Classical period of ancient Greek art. https://www.colorado.edu/classics/2018/06/15/orientalizing-period-ancient-greece

How can we best describe the characteristics of Pottery during the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek art?

During the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek art, pottery underwent significant changes in terms of style, decoration, and iconography. Vessels became more varied and sophisticated, with influences from Eastern pottery shapes and forms. For example, the aryballos (a small, globular-shaped container) and the alabastron (a slender, often pointed bottle) were popular shapes during this time. The period, which occurred from approximately the late 8th century BC to the early 6th century BC, was marked by the influence of Eastern motifs, like lions, sphinxes, and griffins, as well as floral and geometric patterns which became popular, along with the representation of human figures in a more lifelike manner.

How can we best describe the characteristics of Corinthian Pottery during the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek Art?

During the Orientalizing period in ancient Greek art, Corinthian pottery underwent a transformative shift from its earlier geometric style to a more figurative and narrative-focused approach. Influenced by artistic traditions from the Near East and Egypt, Corinthian potters embraced animal motifs, mythical creatures, and composite beings in dynamic poses. Corinthian vessels were adorned with intricate designs, covering the entire surface, exemplifying the abundance and opulence of this period. Utilizing the black-figure technique, they painted dark silhouettes against a yellowish-orange background, embellishing the scenes with incised lines to add detail. To fill empty spaces on these vases, palmettes and lotus blossoms were utilized in place of traditional geometric patterns, and in some cases, negative space gained more prominence.

How can we best describe the Corinthian Alabastron in the Canellopoulos Museum, in Athens?

The Canellopoulos Museum Alabastron from Corinth is typical of the Orientalizing period. This type of pottery, used for holding precious perfumed oils, originated around the 11th century BC in ancient Egypt, and spread via ancient Greece, to many parts of the Mediterranean world. Most Alabastra vases of the Orientalizing period have a narrow body with a rounded end, a narrow neck, and a broad mouth. Alabastra vases were often left without handles, but, for easy mobility, some types were equipped with one, or two, small projections into which holes were punched for strings to pass through, just like the Corinthian Alabastron in Athens.

According to Dr. Moschonesioti… The horizontal rim of the Canellopoulos Museum Alabastro is decorated with a tongue pattern and the vertical side of the rim with broken lines. The neck of the vase is decorated with a tongue pattern and the uppermost part of the vase with three parallel lines. Below them, two wide bands separate three decorative zones with (dancing?) komasts (mythological figures associated with God Dionysus) holding horns. Around the figures, which are presented dressed in purple, floral ornaments, such as large and small rosettes, heart-shaped leaves, and lotus flowers, densely cover the remaining surface of the vase. https://camu.gr/item/korinthiako-alavastro/

The Canellopoulos Museum Alabastro vase boasts an exquisite display of intricate decorations. From the tongue patterns adorning the horizontal and neck rims to the graceful lines and mythological figures of komasts, the artistry captivates the viewer’s eye, standing as a testament to the creativity and craftsmanship of its time.

For a Student Activity inspired by the Corinthian Alabastron in the Canellopoulos Museum, please… Check HERE!

Swimmers on a Wooden Pier

Michael Axelos, Greek Artist, 1877-1965
Swimmers at Palaio Faliro beach, 1935, Oil on plywood, 24.5 x 35.2 cm, Bank of Greece, Athens, Greece
https://www.bankofgreece.gr/PublishingImages/PRESS-RELEASES/2022/Thalassografies_4.jpg.jpg
George Wesley Bellows, American Artist, 1882 – 1925
42 Kids, 1907. Oil on canvas, 106.7 x 152.4 cm, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.134485.html

Michael Axelos’s painting oeuvre attests to his solid technique and undeniable talent. It was not by chance, writes Yannis Stournaras, Governor of the Bank of Greece, that he was the first Greek artist to be entrusted, initially by the National Bank of Greece and subsequently by the Bank of Greece, with the design of banknotes and coins, which he imbued with an aesthetic quality. The Exhibition Michael Axelos (1877-1965) – Between two worlds (December 22, 2015 – July 6, 2017), organized by the Bank of Greece – Centre for Culture, Research, and Documentation, shed new light on both known and unknown aspects of the artist’s life. Going through the Exhibition Catalogue, the painting Swimmers at Palaio Faliro Beach caught my attention, and curiosity… how different, or similar, is the Greek artist’s painting compared to George Wesley Bellows composition 42 Kids? A new BLOG POST, Swimmers on a Wooden Pier, will not give you the decisive answer. Maybe information to reflect upon…    https://www.bankofgreece.gr/MediaAttachments/AXELOS_CATALOGUE.pdf

Michael Axelos, an artist of exceptional skill, whose significant output spanned different genres, was a graduate of the Athens Law School and of the Athens School of Fine Arts. From 1911 to 1914 he continued his studies in Paris, at the Académie Julian and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière where his rather conservative initial training was infused with the new artistic developments, on one hand, Fauvism, and on the other hand Cubism, as presented in the Salons of 1910 and 1911. Axelos devoted a large part of his life and work to the Bank of Greece, where he designed banknotes, coins, and security documents. His retirement in 1846 starts a new period in his artistic life. Without changing his style radically, his painting becomes somehow liberated, is less strict, and escapes from the conservative framework where he had consciously placed it. https://museum.bankofgreece.gr/en/exhibitions/5/–18771965—–?ctx=9b1ea4a74a6d7c70df84ae52cbab3c959873d6f8&idx=4

Michael Axelos, Greek Artist, 1877-1965
Swimmers at Palaio Faliro beach, 1935, Oil on plywood, 24.5 x 35.2 cm, Bank of Greece, Athens, Greece
https://www.bankofgreece.gr/PublishingImages/PRESS-RELEASES/2022/Thalassografies_4.jpg.jpg

In 1935, while still working for the Bank of Greece, Axelos painted Swimmers at Palaio Faliro beach, one of my favorite, most charming paintings. Palaio Faliro is a coastal suburb of Athens and a popular destination for beachgoers. Axelos’ painting depicts a group of swimmers, with the blue sky, the sea, and the not-so-distant Athenian coast, forming a prominent part of the composition. The swimmers are portrayed in a gestural and loose manner, emphasizing movement and dynamism. They take advantage of the well-constructed wooden piers and enjoy a typical Greek summer day, diving into the sea, splashing with joy in the water, and sunbathing. Axelos’ use of tints and little shade, expressive brushstrokes, and direct sunlight, creates a delightful, persuasive composition of a classic Greek summer morning.

George Wesley Bellows was an American artist known for his depictions of New York City life. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, and studied at the Ohio State University before moving to New York City in 1904 to study at the New York School of Art under Robert Henri. Bellows quickly became known for his bold and expressive style, which captured the energy and dynamism of the city. His early work focused on the working-class neighborhoods of New York, depicting scenes of tenement life, street vendors, and labor strikes. He was a member of the Ashcan School, a group of artists who sought to depict the realities of modern life in their work. Tragically, Bellows died at the age of 42 from a ruptured appendix. Despite his short career, he left a lasting impact on American art and is considered one of the most important artists of the early 20th century.

George Wesley Bellows, American Artist, 1882 – 1925
Forty Two Kids, 1907. Oil on canvas, 106.7 x 152.4 cm, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.134485.html

In August 1907 Bellows painted Forty-Two Kids, which depicts a band of nude and partially clothed boys engaged in a variety of antics—swimming, diving, sunbathing, smoking, and possibly urinating—on and near a dilapidated wharf jutting out over New York City’s East River. https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.134485.html

In terms of aesthetics, Bellows has used bold brushstrokes and vibrant colors to capture the energy and excitement of the children. The figures are depicted in dynamic poses that convey their movement and joy. The composition is carefully balanced, with the rough wooden pier stretching out to the right of the canvas, and the water and sky occupying the upper two-thirds of the painting. The use of color is particularly striking in this painting. The boys’ gangly bodies are loosely painted and brightly lit from the upper left. Most are nude, and Bellows employs hues of bright, cream white to medium brown to capture their skin tones. For the rest of the painting, the river in particular, Bellows uses intense shades of blue, emerald green, and yellow that convey a sense of summertime and warmth. The reflections of the children in the water create a sense of depth and perspective, and the overall effect is one of a moment frozen in time, capturing the exuberance of roaming young boys from New York’s Lower East Side tenements. https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.134485.html

Do you see similarities or differences? The decision is yours…

For a Student Activity, titled Swimmers on a Wooden Pier, please… Check HERE!

Mycenaean Procession of Female Worshippers

Procession of Mycenaean Female Worshippers from Kadmeia Palace of Thebes, c. 1400 BC, Wall Painting, Archaeological Museum of Thebes, Greece https://www.reddit.com/r/ArtefactPorn/comments/n6sgl8/mural_composition_showing_female_worshippers/

One of the most frequent themes in the Mycenaean wall painting is a procession of lifesize women in Minoan Dress (tight bodice with exposed breasts and flounced skirt), each figure bearing an offering and proceeding either to the left or right toward an unspecified goal, which was very likely a seated representation of the goddess. A circa 1400 BC fresco example, titled Mycenaean Procession of Female Worshippers comes, from the Kadmeia Palace in Thebes… and is exceptional! Three articles provided me with the necessary information so I can better understand the fresco’s importance. The same articles helped me codify six interesting facts about it… (see Bibliography)

Fact 1: Kadmeia Palace in Thebes was the nucleus of many important Greek Myths… it was connected to Gods and Heroes! The city of Thebes in ancient Greece has a rich mythological tradition. It starts with Kadmos, the Phoenician Prince, who searched for his abducted sister Europa and eventually settled in Boeotia, where he founded the city of Thebes, and built the first Palace. The myth of Oedipus, tragic in every aspect, and the riddle of the Sphinx, is equally known. The myth of the Seven Against Thebes revolves around the conflict between Eteocles and Polyneices, both sons of Oedipus, the fight over the rule of Thebes, and the heartbreaking end of Antigone, their sister, who became a symbol of resistance against unjust laws. Finally, the myth of Zeus, Semele, and Dionysus was closely connected to Thebes and the Palace of Kadmos.

Fact 2: The Greek archaeologist who discovered, in 1906, the Theban Palace, and subsequently the Procession of Female Worshipers fresco was Antonios Keramopoulos. In 1906 Antonios Keramopoulos was the first archaeologist to excavate, in the city of Thebes, a sizable and well-built, but burnt building of the Mycenaean period. He also discovered fragments of a Procession fresco, pieces of gold, agate or quartz artifacts, and numerous jars inscribed with the undeciphered then, Linear B script. Keramopoulos compared his discovery with similar discoveries in Mycenae or, for example, Pylos, and concluded that what he discovered was the Palace of Kadmos, the legendary founder of Thebes.

Architectural Plan of the Old Kadmeia Palace (Ground Floor ‘Court’ Area) in Thebes. The room marked with a blue Star is the area where the Procession fresco was found.
The Archaeological site of the Palace in Thebes http://www.austriaca.at/0xc1aa5576_0x0032aa44.pdf and https://www.mthv.gr/en/beyond-the-museum/tour-in-thebes/the-archaeological-area-of-the-mycenaean-palace-of-thebes-%E2%80%98kadmeio%E2%80%99/

Fact 3: The Procession of Female Worshipers fresco was discovered in Room N (marked with a Blue Star) of the Old Kadmeia Palace. Early during the Keramopoulos excavations, fragments of fresco pieces were discovered in Room N (marked with a Blue Star in the Photo). These fragments employed both the buon fresco and the fresco al secco techniques. Keramopoulos decided that these fragments were part of a long, probably 14 m, fresco presenting a life-size Procession of Female Worshipers, facing both right and left.

Fact 4: The Procession of Female Worshipers fresco found in the Old Kadmeia Palace dates from the Early 14th century BC ( LH III A period, 1400-1300 BC). It is the oldest such fresco discovered in mainland Greece. The Procession of Female Worshipers fresco in the Theban Palace is the oldest wall painting discovered in Boetia. In 1978, Dr. Christos Boulotis embarked on fresh research regarding this fresco. During his investigation, he stumbled upon “forgotten” pieces stored in the warehouse of the Theban Museum. Dr. Boulotis added these fragments to the existing Procession fresco and reassembled the fresco’s composition. By conducting extensive research, comparisons with Mycenaean frescoes, and new local finds, Dr. Boulotis proposed a date of the 14th century BC for the fresco.

Fact 5: The Procession of Female Worshipers fresco in the Palace of Thebes marks the beginning of the Boaetian fresco School of Painting. Dr. Christos Boulotis once again proposed the Palace of Thebes to be established as the focal point of a Boetian workshop, responsible for disseminating innovative ideas in fresco painting across the Palatial areas of Central Greece. To support his proposition, Dr. Boulotis drew comparisons between frescoes found in the Theban Palace, such as the Procession of Female Worshipers, and those discovered in locations like Gla and Orchomenos. Additionally, Dr. Boulotis put forth the idea that groups of itinerant artists, initially from Crete, introduced the Minoan style of fresco painting to Palatial centers in the Peloponnese. The same groups trained local Mycenaean artists who then transmitted the newly developed Mycenaean style of fresco painting to Thebes. The presence of resemblances in patterns, compositions, and styles further suggests a high probability that these groups of traveling artists possessed “pattern/composition books” for their prospective clients to choose from.

Museum View of the ‘Procession of Mycenaean Female Worshippers’ from the Palace of Thebes, late 2000 BC, Wall Painting, Archaeological Museum of Thebes, Greece https://www.mthv.gr/en/permanent-exhibition/mycenaean-period/#image-1

Fact 6: The Procession of Female Worshipers fresco in the Palace of Thebes is the oldest and the finest in mainland Greece. It presents a life-size Procession of Women, finely dressed facing both right and left. The Theban fresco was originally 14 meters long, consisting of three zones: 1. a decorative band in the upper part, 2. the main composition, known as the Procession of Female Worshipers, in the middle, and 3. a lower decorative zone, imitating marble. Interestingly to note is that all pigments were from natural materials, red and ocher, for example, came from iron oxides, and black from carbon. Equally interesting, is that red pigment was used by the Mycenaean painter to outline each female figure.

According to Dr. Immerwahr’s description, the painters of the Theban Procession fresco were excellent draftsmen capable of depicting the human form in a conventional manner while infusing it with a dose of naturalism, allowing the figures to be shown in various positions. The depicted women appear to be wearing the traditional Minoan dress, which is colorful and exquisitely adorned with patterned borders. Their long wavy hair cascades loosely down to their narrow waists. They have spit curls fashioned across the forehead, twisted shoulder coils, and ponytails, some short and others longer. All the women wear fine jewelry, including necklaces and bracelets, each of which is individualized with round-shaped beads, lentoid shapes, or papyriform designs.

This is a large mural composition and a unique fresco of female worshipers striding majestically in two opposite directions, perhaps towards a central female deity who receives their offerings. Archaeologists were able to reconstruct five women from the original composition, one of them facing left, and the other four facing right. According to the latest reconstruction of the fresco, as exhibited in the Archaeological Museum in Thebes, the female worshiper facing left is posing, showing her chest frontally and holding wild roses. Two of the remaining four women facing right are depicted in profile, one of them holding a heavy casket with jewelry, and the other holding wild roses as well. The remaining two worshipers are depicted showing their frontal chests, holding lilies, and a luxury vase, perhaps filled with aromatic oil.

For a PowerPoint on the Mycenaean Procession of Female Worshippers Fresco, please… Check HERE!

Bibliography

1. Aegean Painting of the Bronze Age by Sara A. Immerwahr, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990 https://eclass.uoa.gr/modules/document/file.php/ARCH133/%CE%91%CF%81%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%B1%20%CE%B2%CE%B9%CE%B2%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%BF%CE%B3%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%86%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82%20%CF%83%CE%B5%20pdf/Immerwahr%2C%20Aegean%20painting%20in%20the%20Bronze%20Age.pdf

2. Χρήστος Μπουλιώτης, Η Τέχνη των Τοιχογραφιών στη Μυκηναϊκή Βοιωτία, ΕΠΕΤΗΡΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑΣ ΒΟΙΩΤΙΚΩΝ ΜΕΛΕΤΩ, ΤΟΜΟΣ Γ’, ΤΕΥΧΟΣ α’, Αθήνα, 2000 σελίδες 1095-1149 http://users.uoi.gr/gramisar/prosopiko/vlaxopoulos/epetiris.pdf

3. The House of Kadmos in Mycenaean Thebes Reconsidered: Architecture, Chronology, and Context by Anastasia Dakouri-Hild, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 96 (2001), pp. 81-122 (47 pages) https://www.jstor.org/stable/30073274

An interesting Video titled Mycenaean Thebes, by @HellenicCosmos… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzqIHbCdydk

Persephone as Isis and Hades as Sarapis

Statue Group of Persephone as Isis and Hades as Sarapis, 180-190 AD, Marble, from Gortyn, the island of Grete, Greece

Persephone, Daughter of Zeus, blessed / Only begotten, gracious Goddess, receive this good offering, / Much honoured, you, overpowered by Hades, / you are beloved and lifegiving, / You hold the doors of Hades under the depths of the earth; / Transactor of Justice, your beloved hair the sacred olive branch of the enemy / Mother of the Eumenides, Queen of the Underworld, / You, maiden from Zeus through secret begetting… / … Listen, blessed Goddess and send up fruits from the earth / In peace, flourishing in health from your soothing hand; / And, in life abundance, leading to richness of old age / Then to your realm O Sovereign, and to powerful Hades… and I am reminded of The Statue Group of Persephone as Isis and Hades as Sarapis in the Heraklion Archaeological Museum in Crete… some questions and answers! https://godofthemonth.livejournal.com/2759.html

Where were the statues of Persephone as Isis and Hades as Sarapis found? The statues were discovered on the Island of Crete, in the Temple of the Egyptian Gods in the ancient city of Gortyn.

Few words about the Temple of the Egyptian Gods in Gortyn… It is a significant monument from the ancient world that provides insight into the religious and cultural life of the city. The temple was built during the Roman period and was dedicated to the worship of Egyptian gods, including Isis, Serapis, and Anubis. The temple was likely constructed as a result of the influence of Egyptian culture in Gortyn, as well as the growing popularity of the Egyptian gods in the Roman world. It is a symbol of the cultural diversity of the city and its cosmopolitan nature. The Temple was first excavated by G. Oliverio, in 1914.

Few words about the ancient city of Gortyn… an ancient city located in Crete, Greece, and the capital of the Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica. It was one of the most important cities in ancient Crete and was a center of politics, culture, and commerce. In its heyday, Gortyn was a thriving city with a diverse population. The city was known for its impressive architecture, including temples, like that of the Egyptian Gods, public buildings like the Roman Odeon, and impressive fortifications. The city was home to the Gortyn Code, a set of laws and regulations that governed the lives of the people of Crete and regulated everything from trade and commerce to marriage and family life.

Few words about the statues of Persephone as Isis and Hades as Sarapis… The statues from the Temple of the Egyptian Gods at Gortyn combine iconographic elements and symbols of Hellenic and Egyptian deities alike. The figure of Persephone as Isis is depicted frontally holding a sistrum and wearing a mantle crowned with a disk, the symbol of the sun, between two horns. Hades as Sarapis stands frontally as well. He is crowned with the modius, or grain measure, and holds the scepter of his divine authority in his left hand. On his right is Cerverus, facing the viewer, ferocious-looking and fierce. https://www.heraklionmuseum.gr/en/exhibit/isis-persephone-and-sarapis-hades/

Who were the Greek Gods Persephone and Hades? Persephone and Hades are divine figures from ancient Greek mythology. Persephone was the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and harvest. Hades was the god of the underworld and the dead.

The myth of Persephone and Hades begins with the kidnapping of Persephone by Hades. According to the story, Hades was so enamored with Persephone that he abducted her and took her to the underworld to be his bride. This caused great distress for Demeter, who searched the earth for her daughter and caused the crops to wither and die. To resolve the situation, Zeus intervened and arranged for Persephone to spend half of the year with her mother and half of the year with her husband in the underworld. During the time that Persephone was with Demeter, the crops would grow and the earth would be fertile, but during the time she was with Hades, the earth would become barren.

This is why the ancient Greeks associated the myth with the changing of the seasons and the cycle of death and rebirth. In addition to being a story about the changing of the seasons, the myth of Persephone and Hades also symbolizes the journey of the soul and the transition from life to death. Hades represents the dark, mysterious, and unknown aspects of the afterlife, while Persephone represents the soul that must journey through this realm. The myth of Persephone and Hades is undoubtedly an important and enduring tale in Greek mythology that continues to captivate audiences to this day.

Why and How did the Greek Gods, Persephone, and Hades, connect with the Egyptian Gods Isis and Sarapis? The cult of the Egyptian Gods is attested at many sites of the ancient Greek world and became quite popular during the Hellenistic period. The amalgamation of the attributes of the Egyptian deities Isis and Sarapis with those of the Greek Persephone and Hades is a syncretic phenomenon observed during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. https://www.heraklionmuseum.gr/en/exhibit/isis-persephone-and-sarapis-hades/

One of the key similarities between Persephone and Isis is their association with the afterlife and the underworld. Persephone was abducted by Hades and became the queen of the underworld, while Isis was often depicted as the “Lady of the Tomb” and was associated with the afterlife and the dead. Both figures were also associated with the idea of rebirth and renewal and were revered as powerful, nurturing goddesses who could bring life and fertility to the earth. In both myths, the goddess was seen as a powerful figure who could help guide the souls of the dead through the afterlife and ensure that they reached their final resting place.

The Egyptian God Sarapis is thought to be a creation of Ptolemaic Egypt, an amalgama of Osiris, husband of Isis, Apis, and Hades. Sarapis was widely worshipped in the Hellenistic world and was particularly popular in the city of Alexandria in Egypt. He was depicted as a powerful and benevolent ruler of the underworld and was seen as a savior figure who could grant salvation to those who worshipped him. Despite their different origins, both Hades and Sarapis were seen as gods of the underworld who held sway over the fate of the dead. In this sense, they both represented the powers of death and the afterlife in the ancient world. https://www.heraklionmuseum.gr/en/exhibit/isis-persephone-and-sarapis-hades/

For a Student Activity, please… Check HERE!

Photo Credit: https://www.heraklionmuseum.gr/en/exhibit/isis-persephone-and-sarapis-hades/

May Day on Corfu by Charlambos Pachis

Charalambos Pachis, Greek Artist, 1844 – 1891
May Day on Corfu, ca 1875-1880, oil on canvas, 61 x 50 cm, National Gallery – Alexandros Soutsos Museum, Athens, Greece https://www.nationalgallery.gr/artwork/protomagia-stin-kerkyra/

On May Day in Corfu, write ‘The Kapodistria Museum – Center for Kapodistrian Studies’ experts, the villagers brought a cypress trunk to the city, the foliage of which they had decorated with wreaths and colorful ribbons. They hung red Easter eggs, pine cones, artichokes, and other fruit gilded, doves and such. This May tree was reminiscent of the Christmas tree. The villagers holding the cypress were singing outside the houses. May Day on Corfu by Charlambos Pachis is here to remind us of bygone happy days on the Island… https://www.capodistriasmuseum.gr/stories/anoixi-stin-kerkyra/

Haralambos Pachis (1844-1891) was an artist from the Island of Corfu who painted genre scenes and landscapes, mixing elements of traditional folk art with the Italian influences widespread on the island at the time. His education started at the Accademia de i Pittori e Scultori di Roma (1868-1869) where he studied the latest techniques and styles of painting, and further matured, as he traveled to various European countries, to meet artists, and visit Museums and Galleries. In 1870 he returned to Corfu where he originally taught at the Capodistrias School but then founded a private art school at which many noteworthy Corfiot painters studied, such as Angelos Giallinas and Georgios Samartzis. https://www.nationalgallery.gr/en/artist/pachis-charalambos/

Like many artists from the Ionian Islands who were trained in Europe, Pachis brought his art experiences back to Corfu and incorporated them into his native ‘world’, adapting them to reflect the unique cultural and historical context of the Ionian Islands. As a result, the paintings he created were often characterized by a vibrant use of color, dynamic compositions, and a focus on local landscapes, people, and cultural traditions.

The artist from Corfu became an active member of the late 19th-century Greek art community. He was known for his portraits, landscapes, history compositions, and genre scenes, like the circa 1875-1880 painting of May Day on Corfu in the collection of the National Gallery – Alexandros Soutsos Museum in Athens, Greece.

May Day on Corfu, painted after the union (1864) of the Ionian Islands with Greece bursts with liveness, energy, and an ‘eloquent’ expressiveness. The artist’s diagonal composition brings us to the heart of a central street in the city of Corfu, where typical Corfiot buildings with arches, and a Church with a tall Belltower create a strong sense of depth and perspective, further increased with the faintly colored buildings at the end of the line.

In the foreground, we discern two groups of people: the ‘Creators of Merriment’, centrally placed, and the ‘Viewers’ around them.

Full of energy, and carrying the May Day cypress trunk, the Musicians presented in the composition, create true merriment and cheerfulness with jovial singing and robust music. Dressed in traditional Corfiot attire, and bathed in light, they draw our attention, but most importantly, the attention of the picture’s second group, the ‘Viewers’. Placed in front of a Beerhouse, or around the Musicians, Charalambos Pachis creates a diverse and ‘interesting’ group of ‘Viewers.’ Two herdsmen, for example, wearing red fezzes and tsaruchia-type shoes, one of them carrying a milk container on his shoulder, and five children, three of them standing by the herdsmen, and two more, by the Musicians. These children are quite enigmatic. Are they children or dwarfs? Do they present specific, well-known people on the island? I am afraid I do not have the ‘right’ answer.

Charalambos Pachis, Greek Artist, 1844 – 1891
May Day on Corfu (detail), ca 1875-1880, oil on canvas, 61 x 50 cm, National Gallery – Alexandros Soutsos Museum, Athens, Greece https://www.nationalgallery.gr/artwork/protomagia-stin-kerkyra/

May Day on Corfu by Charlambos Pachis is a composition that projects a wealth of details, purity of forms, vivid colours, and precision of design. It is an ethnological treasure trove, a festive scene in an Ionian Island rich in culture… a 19th-century snapshot of Corfiot merriment!

Wishing you a very Happy May Day!

For a May Day Student Activity, please… Check HERE!

Lekythos in the Canellopoulos Museum

White-Ground Lekythos, 440-430 BC, Terracotta, H. 25,5 cm, Canellopoulos Museum, Athens, Greece https://camu.gr/en/item/likythos/

Intended as a grave gift, this beautiful, white-ground Lekythos in the Canellopoulos Museum is a distinctive 5th century type of Athenian vessel. According to Maria S. Brouscari… the composition presented on the pot’s body, features, a tall, narrow stele with three steps, decorated with fillets, one at the top of the stele and one with its ends hanging over the top step, from which hang also two thin cords. To the left of the stele, a kneeling woman mourns. With her left hand she strikes her head, while her right is outstretched in a gesture of despair. To the right of the stele the dead stands motionless: a young man, fully clad in a deep purple garment, leaving only the head uncovered. His hair is rendered with a dilute black paint. The decoration of the Canellopoulos Museum Lekythos is typical of scenes connected with funerary rituals and can give us some insight into ancient Athenian funerary practices and ideas about death. https://camu.gr/en/item/likythos/

The Athenian, white-ground Lekythos, developed during the Classical period (5th-4th centuries BC), when Athenian potters began to cover the natural reddish color of their pottery with clay that turned white when fired. These small in size oil containers were used in funerary rituals in a number of different ways. They were, for example, burned with the body in cremations, used for pouring oil libations on the body or the grave site, and as offerings, were left at or in a burial. The great majority of these vessels have been found in and around graves, in Attica. https://www.getty.edu/art/collection/object/103VMY

When I look at the Lekythos in the Canellopoulos Museum, I think of Simonides of Ceos. His poetry, widely admired for its beauty, precision, and emotional depth, befits the funerary composition of the white-ground Lekythos in the Athenian Museum…

Fragment 520: ἀνθρώπων ὀλίγον μὲν / κάρτος, ἄπρακτοι δὲ μεληδόνες,  / αἰῶνι δ᾽ ἐν παύρωι πόνος ἀμφὶ πόνωι· / ὁ δ᾽ ἄφυκτος ὁμῶς ἐπικρέμαται θάνατος· / είνου γὰρ ἴσον λάχον μέρος οἵ τ᾽ ἀγαθοὶ / ὅστις τε κακός. – Των ανθρώπων λιγοστή η δύναμη κι άκαρπο ό,τι φροντίζουν πιο πολύ· στη σύντομη ζωή τους η μια στεναχώρια ακολουθεί την άλλη. Αναπόδραστος ο θάνατος ζυγιάζεται από πάνω τους χωρίς διάκριση· ευγενείς και ταπεινοί, όλοι έχουν μπροστά τους την ίδια μοίρα. (Translated by I. N. Kazazis) – Little is the strength of men and fruitless what they care most for; in their short life one sorrow follows another. Death, inescapable, weighs upon them without distinction; noble and humble, all face the same fate. https://www.greek-lan guage.gr/digitalResources/ancient_greek/anthology/poetry/browse.html?text_id=431

Fragment 521: ἄνθρωπος ἐὼν μή ποτε φάσηις ὅ τι γίνεται αὔριον, / μηδ᾽ ἄνδρα ἰδὼν ὄλβιον ὅσσον χρόνον ἔσσεται· / ὠκεῖα γὰρ οὐδὲ τανυπτερύγου μυίας / οὕτως ἁ μετάστασις. – Είσαι άνθρωπος, και γι᾽ αυτό ποτέ μην πεις τί μέλλει αύριο να συμβεί, μήτε να προβλέψεις, σαν δεις κανέναν να ευτυχεί, πόσον καιρό θα κρατήσει αυτό. Γιατί τόσο γοργό σαν την αλλαγή της μοίρας δεν είναι ούτε το φτερούγισμα της μακρόφτερης μύγας. (Translated by I. N. Kazazis) – You are only human, so, never  tell what will happen tomorrow, do not predict, if you see someone happy, how long his happiness will last. Because fate changes faster and swifter than the  fluttering of the long-flying fly. https://www.greek-language.gr/digitalResources/ancient_greek/anthology/poetry/browse.html?text_id=432

Fragment 522: πάντα γὰρ μίαν ἱκνεῖται δασπλῆτα Χάρυβδιν, αἱ μεγάλαι τ᾽ ἀρεταὶ καὶ ὁ πλοῦτος. – Γιατί όλα τα πράγματα καταλήγουν στην ίδια φριχτή Χάρυβδη, κι οι μεγάλες επιτυχίες και ο πλούτος. (Translated by I. N. Kazazis) – For all things come down to the same horrible Charybdis; people’s virtues and success. https://www.greek-language.gr/digitalResources/ancient_greek/anthology/poetry/browse.html?text_id=433

For a Student Activity, please… Check HERE!

Raiment of the Soul

Photographer Vangelis Kyris and Artist of Embroidery Anatoli Georgiev
Costume of Dimitrios Mavromichlis, 19th century, Hand finished silver embroidery, using silver stitching carousel and cord, on printed cotton canvas, 126×104 cm. https://gallerykourd.gr/el/raiment-of-the-soul-2/

”The focus of this exhibition is the traditional Greek costume. Simple or more elaborate, everyday or festive, with embroidery and gold decorations, it is not a simple garment. It is a complex semiotic portrait of the person who wears it” said President of the Republic Katerina Sakellaropoulou in her greeting at the opening of the exhibition Raiment of the Soul at the Acropolis Museum (December 20, 2022, until April 2, 2023).https://www.greeknewsagenda.gr/topics/culture-society/7819-raiment-of-the-soul

There are seventy artworks presented in this fine exhibition. They are embroidered photographs of garments and costumes mostly of the 19th century, safeguarded in the past and present with the love and care of people, mainly the personnel of the National Historical Museum of Athens, but also of other Greek Museums. Two artists are responsible for this unique body of work, photographer Vangelis Kyris and artist of embroidery Anatoli Georgiev. They collaborated with Museums holding these precious costumes and chose the ‘right’ contemporary models to wear them. Then, Vangelis Kyris photographed each model capturing the essence of the costume she/he wore. When the photos were printed on large pieces of cotton canvases, majestic like Renaissance paintings, Anatoli Georgiev, using gold or silver thread stitching, silk or cotton threads, cord, sequins, metallic or knitted buttons… embroidered seminal parts of the costume’s original needlework, creating ‘poetry’ through texture. https://www.theacropolismuseum.gr/en/temporary-exhibitions/raiment-soul

The artists see their project, as a  journey from the past to the future, with the present as a boat. For Vangelis Kyris beauty is what soothes your gaze and educates your soul, and for Anatoli Georgiev, it is Measure, balance, the feeling that what you see elevates your aesthetics.https://www.ifocus.gr/magazine/editors-choice/3044-xronia-polla-ellada-me-endyma-psyxis and https://www.womantoc.gr/stories/article/afto-pou-anakoufizei-to-vlemma-sou-mia-ksexoristi-ekthesi-gia-tin-oraiotita-ton-pragmaton/

For me, Raiment of the Soul is the best way to Celebrate Greece and its  Independence Day!

Photographer Vangelis Kyris and Artist of Embroidery Anatoli Georgiev
Costume of Dimitrios Mavromichlis, 19th century, Hand finished silver embroidery, using silver stitching carousel and cord, on printed cotton canvas, 126×104 cm.
https://gegonota.news/2023/01/25/endyma-psychis-20-dekemvriou-2022-26-martiou-2023/

Demetrios Mavromichalis was the fifth son of Petrobeis Mavromichalis. He was born in Mani, and lived for many years in Paris, upon his return he followed a military career, reaching the rank of lieutenant general. He was a supporter of King Otto I of Greece and took part in the revolution of 1862. As a politician, he participated in the governments of Voulgaris, Kanaris, and Benizelos Roufos. Presented by Kyros and Georgiev in the Acropolis Museum Exhibition, Mavromichalis’s Portrait comes alive and embodies the spirit of Greece through colours, movement, and texture.

Photographer Vangelis Kyris and Artist of Embroidery Anatoli Georgiev
Esther Mastrogianni wearing the Epirote Costume of Kyra Frosyni, 18th century, Hand finished gold embroidery using cord, stitching, and metal sequins on printed cotton canvas, 130×170 cm. https://www.theacropolismuseum.gr/en/temporary-exhibitions/raiment-soul
Acropolis Museum View of the Exhibition Raiment of the Soul with the original Costume of Kyra Frosyni in the Collection of the National Historical Museum of Athens https://www.okmag.gr/lifestyle/protaseis/endyma-psychis-mia-monadiki-ekthesi-me-endymasies-istorikon-prosopon-sto-mouseio-tis-akropolis-me-protovoulia-tis-mariannas-vardinogianni/

Euphrosyne Vasileiou is better known as Kyra Frosini. She lived in Ioannina, in Epirus and she was famous for her beauty and spirit. Kyra Frosyni was executed for adultery in Ioannina by the Ottoman governor Ali Pasha of Ioannina along with 17 other women. She was allegedly executed for political reasons and was thereby viewed as a national heroine. Her violet-coloured dress represents the finest of 18th century Greek craftsmanship. The Kyros and Georgiev Portrait of Kyra Frosyni is ‘alive’ and stunningly ‘beautiful’ in its regal disposition.

Photographer Vangelis Kyris and Artist of Embroidery Anatoli Georgiev
Anatoli Georgiev wearing the attire of Vaso Brajević a Serbian general who became a hero of the Greek War of Independence known by the nickname Mavrovouniotis (“Montenegrin”), 19th century Greek traditional costume, Hand finished gold embroidery using gold  metal thread, stitching, cord and metal sequins, on printed cotton canvas, 126×103 cm. https://www.greeknewsagenda.gr/topics/culture-society/7819-raiment-of-the-soul
Protected…until the day…detail from the costume of Vasos Mavrovouniotis… by Vangelis Kyris https://www.facebook.com/v.kyris/photos/a.598821666844976/2920413098019143?locale=el_GR

Vaso Brajević was a Serbian general who became a hero of the Greek War of Independence known by the nickname Mavrovouniotis (“Montenegrin”). His life was adventurous, risk-taking, and bold. Anatoli Georgiev wearing the attire of Vaso Brajević  Mavdovouniotis presents a striking and dramatic Portrait of a truly revolutionary personality of a harsh but ‘Romantic’ era.  

For Student Activities on the Greek War of Independence, please… Click HERE!

For a short Video on the Exhibition Raiment of the Soul, prepared by the Acropolis Museum, Click… https://www.theacropolismuseum.gr/en/temporary-exhibitions/raiment-soul